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I ergo are not able to choose any relationship anywhere between CO costs and you will tissues specificity

I ergo are not able to choose any relationship anywhere between CO costs and you will tissues specificity

Gender devotion genetics have been in an effective recombinational wasteland

Given the correlation noted above between high gene density and low crossing-over rates, perhaps the association with worker brains simply reflects their residing in domains of low density? The gene density across the whole genome is 4.1 genes/100 kb. Surprisingly, then worker-brain-biased genes reside in regions of higher gene density, averaging 9.0 genes/100 kb, and so, all else being equal, should have low crossing-over rates. Indeed, when compared with other genes from domains of similar gene density, worker-brain bias genes are very highly enriched near COs (chi sq-test, P <2.2e-16: for worker-brain-bias genes vs. for genes in similar gene density). The correspondence with high gene density is not simply a consequence of tandem gene duplication favoring worker-brain-biased genes. Of 752 worker genes 701 are single copy genes (query and hit with overlapping region >50% and identity >50% are treated as paralogs). These singletons are closer (<10 kb) to recombination hotspots than expected by chance (P <1e-9 in chi square-test, method as in Table S8) and in domains of high density (9 genes/100 kb). These results provide prima facie support for the hypothesis that selection favors the higher recombination rate in worker brain genes.

Equivalent show was basically together with seen in regions that have copy number differences, in a manner that the genetics having staff-notice biased expression in contrast to queen’s otherwise drone’s mind try firmly regarding the backup number distinctions (Desk S8B and you may S8C for the Even more document dos). By comparison the newest drone-brain-biased term genes (laid out in comparison with worker’s notice) try significantly absent from all of these nations (Table S8B and you will S8C in Extra file 2). This might be perhaps to get sure-enough once the CNV places will in all probability also be the result of recombination (via irregular crossover ). Most of these multi-backup countries should be the result of uneven CO because these multi-copies appears to be combination duplications about genome inferred out of the new close distance (step one kb-5 kb) involving the matched up-stop checks out.

An excellent coupling between crossing-over and you can head term is even recommended of the studies out-of genes having better-discussed properties. (more…)